A history of the development of south africa

apartheid in south africa

South Africa had no known gold deposits such as those the Portuguese had sought in West Africa in the fifteenth century. Again black entrepreneurs were discouraged, and new laws limited the rights of black workers, creating a large pool of low-cost industrial labor.

South africa history timeline

Instead, Europeans first settled southern Africa to resupply their trading expeditions bound for other parts of the world see Origins of Settlement, ch. Manufacturing experienced new growth during and after World War II. Many South African businesses have a high international reputation for innovation — the modern part of their economy stands comparison to high income countries around the world. Some capital-intensive industries were able to expand, but only with massive foreign loans. When the act was amended in , black land ownership was restricted to 13 percent of the country, much of it heavily eroded. But the European immigrants, like earlier arrivals in the area, engaged primarily in subsistence farming and produced little for export. Government investments through the state-owned Industrial Development Corporation IDC helped to establish local textile and pulp and paper industries, as well as state corporations to produce fertilizers, chemicals, oil, and armaments.

But the government also saw its role as helping to defend white farmers and businessmen from African competition.

In the Natives Land Act reserved most of the land for white ownership, forcing many black farmers to work as wage laborers on land they had previously owned.

Economic growth continued to depend on decent world prices for gold and on the availability of foreign loans. It also initiated large-scale programs to promote the commercial cultivation of corn and wheat.

South africa 1800s

A cluster of African countries has achieved much stronger growth rates helping to bring about improvements in a range of development measures. You're now subscribed to receive email updates! Even as some sectors of the economy began to recover in late , intense violence and political uncertainty in the face of reform slowed overall growth through Economic growth continued to depend on decent world prices for gold and on the availability of foreign loans. This country is an interesting case study in some of the growth constraint factors that have been discussed in previous chapters of the study companion. Valuable crops such as palm oil, rubber, and cocoa, which were found elsewhere on the continent, were absent. In the first half of the twentieth century, government economic policies were designed to meet local consumer demand and to reduce the nation's reliance on its mining sector by providing incentives for farming and for establishing manufacturing enterprises. It registered only negligible, or negative, growth in most quarters. Manufacturing experienced new growth during and after World War II. Again black entrepreneurs were discouraged, and new laws limited the rights of black workers, creating a large pool of low-cost industrial labor.

By the early nineteenth century, when the Cape settlement came under British rule, 26, Dutch farmers had settled the area from Stellenbosch to the Great Fish River see fig. As the war ended, local consumer demand rose to new highs, and with strong government support--and international competitors at bay--local agriculture and manufacturing began to expand.

But the European immigrants, like earlier arrivals in the area, engaged primarily in subsistence farming and produced little for export.

economy of south africa during apartheid

The cycle of economic growth was stimulated by the continual expansion of the mining industry, and with newfound wealth, consumer demand fueled higher levels of trade. Manufacturing, in particular, was seriously affected by downswings in the price of gold, in part because it relied on imported machinery and capital.

A history of the development of south africa

South Africa Table of Contents Before South Africa's vast mineral wealth was discovered in the late nineteenth century, there was a general belief that southern Africa was almost devoid of the riches that had drawn Europeans to the rest of the continent. The region did not attract many slave traders, in part because local populations were sparsely settled. In the Natives Land Act reserved most of the land for white ownership, forcing many black farmers to work as wage laborers on land they had previously owned. South Africa scores relatively well for the efficiency of their product markets and for having a large market size. The government increased its role in the economy, especially in manufacturing, during the s and the s. The Europeans resorted to violence to defend their economic interests, sometimes clashing with those who refused to relinquish their freedom or their land. International banks and private lenders increased cash and credit available to local farmers, miners, and prospectors, and they, in turn, placed growing demands for land and labor on the local African populations. As black labor increasingly voiced its frustrations, and foreign banks cut short their loans because of mounting instability, even capital-intensive industries felt the impact of apartheid on profits. Although the local economy was rich in some areas--based on mixed farming and herding--only ivory was traded to any extent. This nucleus of European settlement quickly spread outward from the fort, first to trade with the local Khoikhoi hunting populations and later to seize their land for European farmers. High inflation had become chronic, driving up costs in all sectors. What stands out is a low ranking in health and education, weaknesses in human capital and limited infrastructure. All farm activity suffered from the cyclical droughts that swept the subcontinent, but white farmers received greater government protection against economic losses.

Marketing boards, which were established to stabilize production of many crops, paid more for produce from white farmers than for produce from black farmers.

Rated 6/10 based on 66 review
Download
South Africas Economic History