# An anaysis of the use of proper mathematical approaches to microeconomics

In this example, each time the x term increases by one the run , the y term rises by three. Edgeworth noticed that a monopoly producing a good that had jointness of supply but not jointness of demand such as first class and economy on an airplane, if the plane flies, both sets of seats fly with it might actually lower the price seen by the consumer for one of the two commodities if a tax were applied. Costs of production[ edit ] Main article: Cost-of-production theory of value The cost-of-production theory of value states that the price of an object or condition is determined by the sum of the cost of the resources that went into making it. Putting these same numbers on a graph can quickly reveal population patterns. A smaller growth rate means the quantity is growing more slowly. Each is discussed below. Figure 5 of the unemployment rate, shown later in this appendix, illustrates a common pattern of many line graphs: some segments where the slope is positive, other segments where the slope is negative, and still other segments where the slope is close to zero. This line graph has x on the horizontal axis and y on the vertical axis. How much will producers supply? A positive slope means that two variables are positively related; that is, when x increases, so does y, or when x decreases, y decreases also. It is a way of analyzing how consumers may achieve equilibrium between preferences and expenditures by maximizing utility subject to consumer budget constraints. Remember that slope is defined as rise over run; more specifically, the slope of a line from one point to another is the change in the vertical axis divided by the change in the horizontal axis. However, an alternative way to develop microeconomic theory is by taking consumer choice as the primitive.

The utility maximization problem has so far been developed by taking consumer tastes i. A negative growth rate means the quantity is decreasing. Because the cost of not eating the chocolate is higher than the benefits of eating the waffles, it makes no sense to choose waffles. If you need accuracy, use the second method. Referred to as the "core" of the economy in modern parlance, there are infinitely many solutions along the curve for economies with two participants  Given two individuals, the set of solutions where the both individuals can maximize utility is described by the contract curve on what is now known as an Edgeworth Box.

In many real-life transactions, the assumption fails because some individual buyers or sellers have the ability to influence prices. A slope of zero means that there is no relationship between x and y. That is, since the budget constraint is both bounded and closed, a solution to the utility maximization problem exists. Subjects were discussed and dispensed with through algebraic means, but calculus was not used.

With the necessary tools and assumptions in place the utility maximization problem UMP is developed. The utility maximization problem serves not only as the mathematical foundation of consumer theory but as a metaphysical explanation of it as well. In practice very few markets operate in this manner. The slope of the line is 3; that is, there is a rise of 3 on the vertical axis for every increase of 1 on the horizontal axis.

However, the theory works well in situations meeting these assumptions. The altitude-air density relationship, shown in Figure 4 later in this appendix, has a negative slope. Note that the vertical intercepts are 8 and —0. The technical assumption that preference relations are continuous is needed to ensure the existence of a utility function. The slope is the same all along a straight line. Since P is on the vertical axis, it is easiest if you solve each equation for P. Graphically, that means it would shift out or up from the old origin, parallel to the old line. Although microeconomic theory can continue without this assumption, it would make comparative statics impossible since there is no guarantee that the resulting utility function would be differentiable. Figure 3. Consumer demand theory[ edit ] Main article: Consumer choice Consumer demand theory relates preferences for the consumption of both goods and services to the consumption expenditures; ultimately, this relationship between preferences and consumption expenditures is used to relate preferences to consumer demand curves.

Supply and Demand Graph.

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