JACS He et al.
Members of the Alliance are exploring nanotechnology-based delivery of nucleic acids as effective treatment strategies for a variety of cancers. Nanotechnology is being applied to almost every field imaginable, including electronics, magnetics, optics, information technology, materials development and biomedicine.
Other platforms utilize X-ray triggered drug-releasing nanoparticles that deliver drug locally at tumor site or to sensitize the cancer cells to radiotherapy in combination with the drug. Nanoparticle delivery vehicles can play a role at multiple points along this pathway.
Nanoparticle assisted cancer detection and monitoring involves biomolecules like proteins, antibody fragments, DNA fragments, and RNA fragments as the base of cancer biomarkers. All of this can add up to a decreased risk to the patient and an increased probability of survival. Emission of photons from the particles subsequently activate a nanoparticle-bound or local photosensitizer to generate singlet oxygen 1O2 ROS for tumor destruction. These now activated cells are then injected back into the host to stimulate an anti-tumor response. Core-shell nanoscale coordination polymers combine chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy to potentiate checkpoint blockade cancer immunotherapy. All three methods risk damage to normal tissues or incomplete eradication of the cancer. Additional uses of nanotechnology for immunotherapy include immune depots placed in or near tumors for in situ vaccination and artificial antigen presenting cells. RESULTS: Cancer nanotechnology confers a unique technology against cancer through early diagnosis, prevention, personalized therapy by utilizing nanoparticles and quantum dots. Several nanomaterials platforms are being researched to this end. Nanotechnology offers the means to target chemotherapies directly and selectively to cancerous cells and neoplasms, guide in surgical resection of tumors, and enhance the therapeutic efficacy of radiation-based and other current treatment modalities. New technologies for molecular and functional analysis of single cells are being used to interrogate tumor and immune cells and elucidate molecular indicators and functional immune responses to therapy. Another type of therapy that relies upon external electromagnetic radiation is photodynamic therapy PDT.
Credit: National Cancer Institute This emerging field involves scientists from many different disciplines, including physicists, chemists, engineers, information technologists, and material scientists, as well as biologists. Nanoparticles are being used as Nanomedicine which participates in diagnosis and treatment of various diseases including cancer.
Held biennially sincethe Cancer Nanotechnology GRC is shaping up to be one of the most exciting and important meetings in the field.
Curr Drug Metab.
Cancer nanotechnology impact factor 2018
Delivering Chemotherapy The traditional use of nanotechnology in cancer therapeutics has been to improve the pharmacokinetics and reduce the systemic toxicities of chemotherapies through the selective targeting and delivery of these anticancer drugs to tumor tissues. Table of Contents 1. These now activated cells are then injected back into the host to stimulate an anti-tumor response. Depiction of the complex pathway involved in cancer immunotherapy. Nano-enabled Immunotherapy Immunotherapy is a promising new front in cancer treatment encompassing a number of approaches, including checkpoint inhibition and cellular therapies. Standalone nanoparticle vaccines are also being designed to raise sufficient T cell response to eradicate tumors, through co-delivery of antigen and adjuvant, the inclusion of multiple antigens to stimulate multiple dendritic cell targets, and continuous release of antigens for prolonged immune stimulation. It is not surprising that the number of publications in cancer nanotechnology had increased rapidly to about per year. JACS He et al. National Nanotechnology Initiative NNI , unique and specific physical properties of matter exist, which can be readily manipulated for a desired application or effect. The physical properties of nanoparticles, such as energy absorption and re-radiation, can also be used to disrupt diseased tissue, as in laser ablation and hyperthermia applications. Members of the Alliance are exploring nanotechnology-based delivery of nucleic acids as effective treatment strategies for a variety of cancers. The dendritic cells internalize the particles, process the antigens, and present peptides to T cells to direct immune responses. Although many of these platforms are initially being studied in vivo by intratumoral injection for superficial tumor sites, some are being tested for delivery via systemic injection to deep tissue tumors. Another type of therapy that relies upon external electromagnetic radiation is photodynamic therapy PDT. Quantum dots, gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, gold nanowires etc.
In particular, the Nucleic Acid-Based Nanoconstructs for the Treatment of Cancer Center at Northwestern University is focused on the design and characterization of spherical nucleic acids for the delivery of RNA therapeutics to treat brain and prostate cancers.
New technologies for molecular and functional analysis of single cells are being used to interrogate tumor and immune cells and elucidate molecular indicators and functional immune responses to therapy.
based on 59 review