The environment is composed of the variety of internal, external, as well as social factors such as physical and mental state, financial state, geographic location, culture, religious affiliations, social support, and personal relationships Nurse Groups, n.
Chapter 5: Timeliness. The third element is the environment that includes everything around a person that influence his or her illness as well as recovery. Examining interactions between social factors of concern and need, or stratifying analyses according to different levels of need, can be used to identify horizontal and vertical equity.
Third, there may be a lack of consensus about the definition of need for intervention, for example in total hip replacement. Finance, insurance, and payment deal with the monetary aspects of the health care system.
Three areas in which benefits are frequently circumscribed under both public and private insurance plans are preventive services, behavioral health care treatment of mental illness and addictive disordersand oral health care.
The role of evidence synthesis in health services research is further discussed in Essay 1 of this volume. Inequalities have been demonstrated at each stage of the pathway: in participation in population-based screening programmes in the community, in the management of health problems in primary care, in the access to and use of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures within secondary care, and in rehabilitation and end-of-life care.
These risk behaviors are estimated to account for more than half of all premature deaths; smoking alone contributes to one out of five deaths McGinnis and Foege, The development of innovative techniques and application of emerging methods for collecting and analysing data will enable equity to be measured with greater accuracy, precision, relevance and comprehensiveness.
Primary care involves the widest scope of health care, including all ages of patients, patients of all socioeconomic and geographic origins, patients seeking to maintain optimal healthand patients with all types of acute and chronic physical, mental and social health issues, including multiple chronic diseases.
The committee encourages health care policy makers in the public and private sectors to reexamine these issues in light of the concerns about bioterrorism.