The success of the first crusade
What accounts for the success of the first crusade
His followers dispersed; some eventually joined the main armies, although Emicho himself went home. The Seldjuks were constantly engaged in fights with the local population of Syria and with the caliph of Cairo. Peter arrived at Constantinople in August, where his army joined with the one led by Walter, which had already arrived, as well as separate bands of crusaders from France, Germany, and Italy. Alexios was understandably suspicious after his experiences with the People's Crusade, and also because the knights included his old Norman enemy, Bohemond, who had invaded Byzantine territory on numerous occasions with his father, Robert Guiscard , and may have even attempted to organize an attack on Constantinople while encamped outside the city. Within years the act of joining a crusade became a popular trend of a sort among the rich European nobility as well as peasants and lower class Christians, and it was a sort of religious unity that Europe had experienced for the first time since the empire of Charlemagne in the dark ages. The armies were able to establish some contact with Western Europe by routes of the sea. The common Christian soldiers were usually much more heavily armed in battle than their Muslim counterparts, notably the powerful European knights on horseback. An infantry or foot soldiers made a large portion of these armies while a cavalry or horsemen made a smaller portion. He was driven back by the unexpectedly large crusader force, with heavy losses being suffered on both sides in the ensuing battle. Bohemond himself had also commanded the successful capture of Antioch from the Turkish Emir Yaghi Syian, a victory only paralleled in the Crusade by the eventual capture of Jerusalem The success of these conquests and others allowed the Crusaders to establish permanent settlements throughout the Holy Land. It must be said, that Cyprus was governed by Alexius and so help coming from Cyprus was Byzantine help. Raymond of Tolouse who later commanded the crusade as it reached Jerusalem was also a splendid field commander, as can be seen by the overwhelming victories he achieved over the Arabian-Nubian defensive garrison that Emir Iftikhar ad-Daula had prepared to defend the holy city.
The knights lacked power to transport these with themselves and often there was not enough wood to build the onsite. Veterans of the battle recalled seeing angels and the spirits of dead Crusaders riding into combat with the living.
Did the crusades succeed
In the early summer of , the first large unruly group arrived on the outskirts of Constantinople. These new Kingdoms were fortified by formidable forts and castles. The crusaders represented northern and southern France, Flanders, Germany, and southern Italy, and so were divided into four separate armies that were not always cooperative, though they were held together by their common ultimate goal. As a result, their culture, religion and tactics were well known to the Byzantine general. All Crusaders would join the great Christian cause of "liberating the holy land" were promised by the Pope in his speech at Clermont that any man who committed sin with the cause of freeing the holy land would be forgiven and guaranteed a lasting place in heaven. Until modern times, the moral of an army was a much greater factor and religious occasion and preaching of such dominant figures like Peter the Hermit contributed to a victory or a defeat Arslan was away campaigning against the Danishmends in central Anatolia at the time, and had left behind his treasury and his family, underestimating the strength of these new crusaders. One factor is rarely admitted by the chronicles of the time; luck. Dynastic infighting among different Muslim sultanates and the invasions of the ferocious Mongol hordes distracted Muslim forces from the remaining Crusader Kingdoms. Many of his soldiers and officers fled the battles early, not being too eager to fight for their lord.
Division within the Muslim as reason for the success of the First Crusade It was unity among Arabs and early Muslims that enabled Islam to spread across and beyond the Arabian Peninsula during the seventh and eight centuries.
In the cases of Antioch and Nicaea the blockades succeeded eventually. Other unofficial crusaders from Swabia, led by Hartmann of Dillingen, along with French, English, Lotharingian and Flemish volunteers, led by Drogo of Nesle and William the Carpenteras well as many locals, joined Emicho in the destruction of the Jewish community of Mainz at the end of May.
The army led by Walter fought with the Hungarians over food at Belgradebut otherwise arrived in Constantinople unharmed.
The Mongols were a potential ally of the Christian Kingdoms and their defeat was a serious setback for Christians.
The success of the first crusade
Known as a "strong, handsome, and blonde" by an account from Alexia, daughter of the Byzantine Emperor, Bohemond personally commanded the Crusaders to victory over the Seljuk armies of Sultan Kilij Arslan at Dorylaeum His travels there culminated in the ten day Council of Clermont , where on Tuesday 27 November he gave an impassioned sermon to a large audience of French nobles and clergy. In the cases of Antioch and Nicaea the blockades succeeded eventually. An estimated 30 thousand crusaders formed the combined numbers of the four Christian armies. They were the Seljuk Turks. Alexios was understandably suspicious after his experiences with the People's Crusade, and also because the knights included his old Norman enemy, Bohemond, who had invaded Byzantine territory on numerous occasions with his father, Robert Guiscard , and may have even attempted to organize an attack on Constantinople while encamped outside the city. European Christians from all walks of life jumped at the chance to stop the Muslim threat and recover the Holy Land. Richard became a feared but respected symbol of Christian power and chivalry. That it was more for natural obstacles and the foreign climate than fighting that the crusaders lost men often depended on a few great generals. Together, this group and the first wave numbered an estimated 60, The crusading army fought several pitched battles on the way to Jerusalem and had to siege fortifications of various significance. As the secular medieval world was so deeply ingrained with the spiritual world of the church, it is quite likely that personal piety was a major factor for many crusaders. The crusaders had an advantage in the size of their forces as well, at least for the first months.
The primary reason why the First Crusade was the only successful Crusade can be attributed to the high military skill of the Europeans, the zealous Christian religious fervor of the era, and the slow breakdown of the Islamic empire which in previous times had been powerful.
However, later they present a detailed knowledge of their enemy and distinguish between tribes and countries. The Mamluk Sultan, Qalawan, after defeating Mongol forces innow focused his attention on the Crusader Kingdoms.
They were able to establish a united front that exploited the weakness of the Byzantine Empire and the Sassanid Empire. As a response to the call to arms of Pope Urban II and the Church, European states began considering themselves as protectors not only of the Western civilisation but also of the entire Christendom.
Total Muslim control over the entire region was reestablished. Arslan was away campaigning against the Danishmends in central Anatolia at the time, and had left behind his treasury and his family, underestimating the strength of these new crusaders.
Reasons for the first crusade
Although waiting to be asked, the emperor decided the siege by making a huge effort. The Muslim near-east had indeed fallen into religious and political anarchy from its previous empire into a petty collaboration of local dictatorships and was unable to stand united against the crusader threat. After arriving in Constantinople and crossing the Bosphorus, the Crusaders decided to liberate the strategic city of Nicaea on the shores of the Ascanian Lake, site of ecumenical councils in and Alexius expected a trained army to arrive and help him fight for the lands captured by the Turks in the 11th century. The most naval support arrived at the siege of Jerusalem in from of ships from Genoa and England. Indeed the Crusades launched in the future, of which most were unsuccessful, were much more politically motivated than religiously centered and in most cases were defeated. In other words, the organised armies of crusaders proved more prepared and devoted than their Muslim counterparts. For whatever reasons, but it were not the united Christian forces fighting a united Muslim front, but separate armies and enemies. It became acceptable for the Pope to utilize knights in the name of Christendom , not only against political enemies of the Papacy, but also against Al-Andalus , or, theoretically, against the Seljuq dynasty in the east. Launched by Pope Urban II in response to a request from the Byzantine Emperor for military aid, the Crusade itself was a totally justified cause, at least to the Crusaders. Of course, the earlier phase of the First Crusade was disastrous. Until the Crusaders' arrival, the Byzantines had continually fought the Seljuqs and other Turkish dynasties for control of Anatolia and Syria. The army led by Walter fought with the Hungarians over food at Belgrade , but otherwise arrived in Constantinople unharmed.
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